War of 1812 Raids & Skirmishes in 1812

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Occupations, Raids & Skirmishes of 1812

March 17, 1812 in Fernandina, Florida (Surrender of Fernandina) - Gen. George Matthews increased his pressure for Capt. Hugh Campbell to send some of his naval force to assist him at Fernandina on Amelia Island. Campbell pleaded with Secretary of Navy Paul Hamilton for his official instructions. Lacking any official instructions from Hamilton, Campbell at first refused all requests for aid from Matthews. But on March 17, Campbell sent 2 gunboats and positioned them at Fernandina. He said he did this to avoid spilling any blood. The Spanish Commander, Justo Lopez, had insuffcient forces in town to oppose Mathew's army, but he was concerned that Campbell's gunboats, which had their guns trained on the town, would open fire. The Americans kept the Spanish from conducting any offensive operations against them. On March 19th, Fernandina was formally surrendered to the patriots, whose force soon numbered over 800 men after reinforcements from Georgia arrived.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 15, 1812 at Aux Canards River (bridge), Michigan Territory - On July 15, a party of 280 Americans, foraging under the command of militia Col. Lewis Cass, reached the Aux Canards River. This spot was very close to Malden and captured the lightly guarded bridge over the river. Gen. Robert Lucas, an Ohio militia general serving as a field officer, claimed that, except for the failures of the officers, they could have captured 150 British soldiers and 50 Indians.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 29, 1812, Sackett's Harbor, New York (Battle of Sackett's Harbor) - Before Commodore Issac Chauncey's regime, the United States had only 1 war vessel on Lake Ontario. The USS Oneida was based at Sackett's Harbor. From April through July, it brought in 2 prizes. The Oneida's depredations and the strategic importance of Sackett's Harbor made the elderly British commander, Lt. Hugh Earle, determined to plan an attack on Sackett's Harbor. He sent word that if the American's did not surrender Sackett's Harbor, he would burn the harbor to the ground. On July 29, Eaerle sailed from Kingston with what seemed like an overwhelming force. His fleet included the HMS Royal George with 24 guns, HMS Prince Regent with 16 guns, HMS Earl of Moira with 22 guns, HMS Simcoe with 8 guns, and the HMS Seneca with 8 guns. The American naval commander of Sackett's Harbor, Lt. Melancthon Woolsey, was not overawed with the British fleet and made preparations to resist the coming attack. He brought ashore 1 entire broadside fron the Oneida and placed it next to an existing cannon. When earles's fleet arrived, the American artillery fire punished the British ships so severely that they had to withdraw from the quick battle.
Conclusion: American Victory.

August 4, 1812 near Brownstown, Michigan Territory (Battle of Brownstown) - In early August 1812, an American relief column was making it's way to Detroit. Capt. Brush was in command of this force that had arrived at the River Raisin. They were bringing cattle and other supplies to Gen. William Hull's Army. While the column was at the River Raisin, Captain Brush sent a messenger to Hull, who was now in the Canadian town of Sandwich. The message said that the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh and some of his warriors had crossed the Detroit River and were now near or at the village of Brownstown. It also stated that Tecumseh was possibly being escorted by British regulars. Brush asked that troops be sent from Detroit to help protect his supply column. This was agreed to by Hull, and on August 4th, 200 Ohio militia marched south under the command of Maj. Thomas Van Horne.

As Van Horne and his men were crossing the Brownstown Creek, 3 miles north of the village of Brownstown, 24 native warriors and Tecumseh ambushed the supply column to the south. The Americans became confused and started to retreat. The Indians pursued the Americans as far as the Ecorces River, it was here that the Indians broke off their attack.

The Americans lost 18 men killed, 12 wounded and 70 men missing. The Indians lost one man, a chief. This was only a small skirmish, but it did show that the American supply line to Ohio was not secure. But more importantly General Hull became convinced that he was outnumbered by British and Indian forces.
Conclusion: British victory. Casualties: Americans: 18k, 12w, 70m; Indian: 2k

August 9, 1812 in Maguaga, Michigan (Battle of Maguaga) - The Battle of Maguaga was a small battle fought between 75 regular British troops, 65 Canadian militia and Chief Tecumseh's 70 natives against a larger force of 600 American troops in Maguaga, Michigan. After the clearcut British victory at the Battle of Brownstown, Gen. William Hull decided to attack the British in Michigan. Once the battle was under way his troops accidentally shot the Indians on their right flank. This small battle was not progressing much but the Americans gained access to some of the supplies and destroyed them but were temporarily repulsed. The British and their allies were facing heavy fire from the enemy's superior numbers and withdrew. The Americans also withdrew, with larger casualties, when William Hull was ordered to return his army back to Detroit.
Conclusion: Inconclusive victory. Casualties: Americans: 18k, 63w, 70m; British: 6k, 21w, 2c

September 3, 1812 in Pigeon Roost, Indiana Territory (Battle of Pigeon Roost) - It was Tecumseh, not the british commanders, who now took up the offensive against the Americans. He peppered the western frontier with destructive Indian raids against American military forces and civilians alike. On September 3, a small Indian party raided a small village of Pigeon Roost. They wiped out about 20 white people and burned down their houses.
Conclusion: British Victory.

September 5-9, 1812 in Fort Madison, Missouri Territory (Battle of Fort Madison) - A large band of fierce Winnebago Indians attacked Fort Madison, near St. Louis, for 3 days. They could not capture the fort and abandoned their attack.
Conclusion: American Victory.

September 16, 1812 in Prescott, Upper Canada (Battle of Prescott)- Upstream from Montreal, the St. Lawrence River, which was Canada's lifeline, consisted of numerous and dangerous rapids. Cargoes could be carried through them only in bateaux manned by experts. On September 16, an American gunboat opened fire on a brigade of bateaux above the rapids near Prescott. The bateaux was supported on shore by units of citizen soldiers. The entire precios brigade might have been captured but for one voyageur who had escaped and spread the alarm. The Canadian militia assembled, and they and the bateaumen had beaten off the American attempt.
Conclusion: British Victory.

October 4, 1812 in Ogdensburg, New York (Battle of Ogdensburg) - In retalliation for the for the September 21 American raid at Gananoque, Col. Robert Lethridge, British commander at Prescott, prepared to attack Ogdensburg. Ogdensburg was the main American station for harassing British river traffic. On the morning of October 4, Lethridge directed a heavy cannomade across the St. Lawrence River. Under the cannonade, the British also launched 25 bateaux and 2 gunboats carrying 750 men, mixed regulars and militia, to the American shoreline. The Americans returned their own cannonade from Ogdensburg, forcing Lethridge's force back in midstream. Governor General Sir ?? Prevost censured the expedition as a violation of his injunction against any offensive action. He then relieved Lethridge of his command and reassigned him to a minor position in Montreal. For some reason, Lethridge was promoted to major general on June 4.
Conclusion: American Victory.

November 20-21, 1812, in Fort Niagra, New York (Battle of Fort Niagra) - As soon as the temporary armistice had ended, Maj. Gen. Sir Roger Sheaffe ordered a bombardment of fort Niagra from his base at Fort George. He had hoped to distract the American commanders from the southern end of the Niagra River, where he believed lay the greastest danger to Canada. The artillery cannonade he had ordered evoked the Anmericans to respond with their own bombardment on Fort George. An artillery duel went on through November 21. When the duel was over, there were 6 killed and a few men wounded. There was some property damage but no important objectives had been achieved by Sheaffe.
Conclusion: Inconclusive.

November 22, 1812, Prophetstown, Indiana Territory (Battle of Prophetstown) - Brig. Gen. Samuel Hopkins brooded over his previous failure and made plans to try again. He assembled 3 regiments of militia infantry from Kentucky, Capt. Zachary Taylor's company of regulars, a company of Rangers, and some scouts. The American force totaled 1,200 men. Hopkins led his force out of Fort harrison on November 11. This time, he destroyed the 40 huts of Prophetstown without a fight and wiped out a Kickapoo village of 160 huts. His men cut down all of the growing corn that they came across. Detachments of the force split up for pursuits of the fleeing Indians. One detachment fell into an ambush and lost 18 men. The rest returned intact, and Hopkins was proud to lead them back through the snow to Fort Harrison. He was confident that he had permanently crippled the Indians in that quarter.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: Americans: 18k

November 23, 1812, French Mills, New York (Battle of French Mills) - On November 23, a British party of 20 regulars and 70 militiamen retaliated for the American raid on St. Regis on October 22. The British party raided an American fort at French Mills, on the Salmon River. The British captured 44 American militiamen, 4 boats, and 57 stands of arms.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: Americans: 44c

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