January 26, 1814, Camp Defiance, Alabama (Mississippi Territory) (Creek War )- After the Creek Indians had struck Col. Andrew Jackson on January 24 and obliged him to retreat to Fort Strothers, the Creeks had diverted their force eastward with better central direction than was common for Indians to attack the column from Georgia. Maj. Gen. John Floyd, commanding this column, had advanced to Fort Mitchell on the Chattahootchie River and remained there for 6 weeks. Then, at the head of 1,200 volunteers, a company of mounted men, and 400 Indians, he advanced to a point 50 miles farther west. There, the Creeks attacked Floyd before dawn on January 26. As long as the darkness lasted, the outcome was in doubt. As soon as daylight came, Floyd employed that tactic which rarely failed against the Indians. With a charge, Floyd broke up the Creek base of fire, but at a high price to his force. Moreover, he felt obliged to draw back again to Fort Mitchell. This was the last expedition which Georgia mounted to penetrate the Creek country during the War of 1812. Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties:Americans: 22k, 147w
April 16, 1814, Washington, D.C. - On July 1, President James Madison announced at a cabinet meeting that he expected a British attack on Washington, D.C. The next day, the 10th Military District was created. Secretary of War John Armstrong wanted Col. Moses Miller to command the district, but Madison himself chose Brig. Gen. William H. Winder. Winder had been captured in 1813 at Beaver Dams, and was released early in 1814 to go to Washington to negotiate the exchange of prisoners.
While Winder was at Washington, he recieved from Madison the appointment of the United States representative in all negotiations with the British officials regarding the exchange of prisoners. Through his efforts, a convention was agreed upon by both sides on April 16, and the machinery for a general exchange of prisoners was set in motion.
May 14, 1814, Port Dover, Upper Canada - Col. John B. Campbell was stationed for duty at Lake Erie in April. Determined to do something, he loaded 800 men into prize ships, reconditioned for American service at Put-in-Bay, and sent them unopposed to Port Dover. residents of this place had convinced him that it was a settlement of Old Tories who hated the United States and been foremost in the looting and plundering of Buffalo and Black Rock. Accordingly, campbell burned 3 flour mills, 3 sawmills, 3 distilleries, and about 20 houses. He shot all the livestock and left the carcasses to rot. He was reported to have said that he burned Dover in retaliation for Buffalo, Havre de Grace, and Lewiston. When British Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall sent a courier to ask wether or not the government had sanctioned this destruction, Campbell replied that he alone had planned and executed it. Not even the victims accused his men of rape or indignities to the weak and helpless, but only of plundering and burning. Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties:Americans: ?k, ?w, ?m; British: ?k, ?w, ?c
July 18, 1814 in Leonardtown, Maryland - British naval forces captured Leonardtown, Maryland on July 18 without firing a shot. Although they captured it, they did not destroy the town. Conclusion: British Victory.
July 20, 1814 on the Noniny River, Maryland - After the British had captured Leonardtown on July 18, they went out to the Nominy River. Two days later, on July 20, they met a sharp resistance from the American forces. In the end the British naval forces, led by Adm. Sir George Cockburn and with 500 men, captured 2 American schooners, quanities of tobacco, and 4 prisoners. In addition, 135 slaves followed them after this. The British left the Nominy River and headed down the Yeocomico River. Conclusion: British Victory.
July 22, 1814, Indian Treaty signed - Although there was a strong American sentiment for punishing the allies of the British, a treaty was signed with many of them on July 22, 1814. The Indian signatories agreed thereafter to aid the United States and to supply Indian warriors in numbers stipulated by the United States. The Indians also agreed to not make peace wothout American concurrence. In return, the United States promised to confirm the boundries which had existed between them and the Indians when the war commenced. William H. Harrison and Lewis Cass signed for the United States. harrison had resigned as major general on May 31, 1814, and Cass had resigned as brigadier general at about the same time. Cass had resumed his duties as the governor of the Michigan Territory.
August 4, 1814, Conjocheta Creek, New York - Lt. Gen. Sir Gordon Drummond had detached 600 of his men with orders to destroy the American depots at Buffalo and Black Rock. On August 4, this detachment, led by Lt. Col. J.G.P. Tucker, landed downstream from Black Rock and marched southward. At Conjocheta Creek, 250 to 300 American riflemen were waiting for the British force beyond the stream and behind a long breastwork, under the command of Maj. Lodowick Morgan. The Americans had taken down the bridge, and their riflefire kept the british from crossing by any other means. After 3 hours of battle, the British gave up the attempt and retreated. Later, the British officers said it was the devastating accuracy of the American riflemen which had foiled them. Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties:Americans: ?k, ?w, ?m; British: 11k, 17w, 4m
August 9-11, 1814 Stonington, Connecticut - On July 18, Adm. Alexander F.I. Cochrane had issued a general orders which denounced Amrican conduct of war as barbarous. He directed commanders to lay waste to American towns and districts within there reach until the United States paid indemnity. Not much devastation grew out of Cochrane's retaliation order. Rear Adm. Henry Hotham, however, took it as authority to punish the town of Stonington for harboring torpedoes. American torpedoes were not very lethal, but the British officers considered them "engines of the devil", unfit for civilized warfare. On August 9, Stonington was bombarded by 4 British warships. They ceased fire at the end of the day, but resumed the bombardment on August 11. The fort in the town stoutly responded, and the local militia swarmed 3,000 men strong to repel the expected landing of British troops. The British warships drew off when night came and did not return. Conclusion: American Victory.
August 12, 1814 Town of Wareham, Connecticut - On August 12, the town of Wareham was bombarded by the British naval ships. Although the town of Stonington, Connecticut had escaped destruction by the British warships, this town did not escape. In the end, Vessels here and a cloth factory worth $20,000 were burned, and 10 local ships were destroyed. Conclusion: American Victory.
August 20, 1814 Occupation of Benedict, Maryland - Adm. Sir George Cockburn sought and recieved permission to accompany the British land force, and as he knew the territory well, Vice Adm. Alexander F.I. Cochrane asked him what was the best point of bebarkation. Since Washington, D.C. was always Cockburn's objective, he unhesitatingly recommended the town of Benedict on the Patuxent River, 45 miles from the capital on a good road. At Benedict, there there would be scant danger from Fort Washington on the Potomac River. There would be quiet water for the ships to anchor, quarters for the troops, plenty of horses, and forage for the army. Within 48 hours after occupying Benedict, Cockburn claimed, Washington could be easily taken with almost no opposition from the Americans. In addition, there were roads leading to both Anapolis and Baltimore, and guides were available to conduct them anywhere in the area. Cochrane followed Cockburn's advice. A total of 3-days rations were cooked on board and issued to each man. By 3:00 P.M.on August 20, about 4,500 men were established in a strong position 2 miles above Benedict. The townspeople had deserted the village. Horses were not as abundant as Cockburn had claimed, and when the column moved out at dawn on August 21, noone rode any horses except for the general officers and their staff. Conclusion: British Victory.
August 21, 1814 Occupation of Nottingham, Maryland - After occupying the village of Benedict, the British force took off for Washington, D.C., their primary objective. When the column moved out at dawn on August 21, they only carried one 6-lb. and two 3-lb. cannon with them. The column was well screened by flankers, and a flotilla of boats kept abreast of its right flank. At the head of the column was Adm. Sir George Cockburn and Maj. Gen. Robert Ross. The column halted at Nottingham when darkness came, and occupyed the town without any resistence. The British had covered 20 miles without any hostile incident. many of the men had fallen out, though, weakened by the sea voyage and debilitated by the high humidity and a temperature close to 90 degrees. Conclusion: British Victory.
August 27, 1814 Fort Washington, Maryland - On August 27, Capt. James Gordon warped up to Fort Washington, only 2 days after burning Washington, D.C. He prepared to shell the fort when the fort commandant, Capt. Samuel T. Dyson, evacuated his American troops from the fort. After the Americans left, the British flotilla blew up the fort. After the destruction of the fort, the British headed to the town of Alexandria. Conclusion: British Victory.
August 28, 1814 Occupation of Alexandria, Virginia - On August 28, the British flotilla, commanded by Capt. James Gordon, appeared before the defenseless town of Alexandria. Gordon sent his demands to the town's leaders, with an ultimatum. The demands did not give the town leaders any time to decide, they they agreed with the demands right away. Alexandria's town council agrred to turn over all naval stores, ordnance, and ships, including the ships that had recently sunk to avoid capture. In return with agreeing to his demands, Gordon spared the town from destruction. The British flotilla left later that day. Conclusion: British Victory.
October 15, 1814, Chippewa, Upper Canada - Brig. Gen. George Izard wanted to attack Fort Niagra, but brig. Gen. James Brown and Brig. Gen. Moses Porter persuaded him to cross into Canada and advance to the Chippewa River. On October 15, Izard fired across the Chippewa River with a cannon and then drew back. Lt. Gen. Gordon Drummond reported that Izard had gone from his front, but he did not understand why Izard had left. Drummond could concentrate 2,800 troops, but estimated the American force at 8,000 men. The Americans actually had about 6,300 men fit for duty. Drummond lamented that he was badly outnumbered by the Americans, and that Izard had an efficient army but did not have a worthy strategic objective for it. Conclusion: Inconclusive.
November 5, 1814, Fort Erie, Upper Canada (Burning of Fort Erie) - On November 5, Brig. Gen. George Izard ordered that Fort Erie be abandoned and blown up. With this, the Americans gave up their only holding in Canada. After evacuating all equipment and supplies, the Americans pulled out of the fort and torched it. This would keep the British from using the fort anytime soon.
December 1, 1814 Tappahannock, Maryland - On December 1, a British landing party captured the village of Tappahannock, 40 miles from the mouth of the Rappahannock River. The Americans claimed that the British force wantonly plundered the village but the British commanders claimed that they did not.
On the British force's return trip down the Rappahannock River, American militia forces inflicted several casaulties. Conclusion: British Victory.